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By the turn of the 21st century, computers had further enhanced architects’ ability to conceptualize and create new forms.

For the purposes of this article, “Western architecture” signifies architecture in Europe as well as in regions that share a European cultural tradition.

Each is notable, and Phaestus is particularly fascinating, due to extensive Italian excavations.

Maritime hegemony enabled the Cretan sea kings to build these palaces in low and unprotected places; consequently there is a conspicuous absence of fortification walls, as contrasted to the great walls of Mesopotamian palaces.

The hallmark of the Aegean civilizations was the facility with which Asiatic motifs and techniques were adapted to form original local styles.

In architecture, by far the most important achievements were those of the civilizations of Palace of Minos at Knossos, excavated and reconstructed early in the 20th century by Sir Arthur Evans, offers evidence of unbroken architectural and artistic development from Neolithic beginnings, culminating in a brilliant display of building activity during the third phase of the Middle Minoan period (1700–1580 ).

Light was supplied from above by an ingenious system of light wells, and several colonnaded porticoes provided ventilation during the hot Cretan summers.

The development of the other Minoan palaces (Phaestus, Mallia, Ayía Triáda, Tylissos) roughly parallels that of Knossos.

Behind this corridor, along the western side, was discovered a series of long narrow storerooms containing great numbers of pithoi, or human-size storage vessels for oil.North American architecture is also treated in this article; for treatment of Latin American architecture, The islands of the eastern Mediterranean and the Aegean Sea form a natural link between the landmasses of the Middle East and Europe.A westward expansion from the civilizations of western Asia and Egypt began about 3000 and led to settlements in Crete, the Cyclades, and mainland Greece.In the late medieval period, the pointed arch, ribbing, and pier systems gradually emerged.At this point all the problems of brick and stone masonry construction had been solved, and, beyond decorative advances, little innovation was achieved until the Industrial Revolution.

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